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The Business Case for environment and sustainability training

When Nobel Prize-winning economists, the World Bank, business bodies and governments of all hues endorse environmental initiatives as a solution to a multitude of problems, it’s time to sit up and take notice.

Why? Because it means there’s never been a better time to do environmental training.

“Green” jobs improve social and economic outcomes by boosting employment while growing skills and improving the environment. That makes it a safe bet for for both governments and businesses to invest in green jobs and environmental training.

There’s only one thing worse than training your staff and having them leave, and that’s NOT training them and having them stay. — Zig Ziglar

Following the climate change talks in Paris at the end of 2015, climate change has been more widely accepted as a leading driver of sustainability change for business and government.

Not persuaded that climate change is a real and present threat to “business as usual”? That’s okay. The information below shows that environment and sustainability training yields such significant dollar returns on investment that it’s worth doing anyway.

Better still – attend my training and find out even more!

 

The business benefits of good staff training

The eXtra X-Factor of environment and sustainability training

Going green: does it kill or create jobs?

What does greening jobs mean for your organisation?

Short stories of success: quotes and 50-word case studies for your sector here!

References and other helpful reading

Business opportunities in the shift to a more sustainable future range from developing and maintaining low-carbon, zero-waste cities, to improving and managing biocapacity, ecosystems, lifestyles and livelihoods. In today’s dollars, the market opportunities created by adapting to the new global reality for sustainable living are somewhere between $3-$10 trillion USD per year in 2050. World Business Council for Sustainable Development.1 (WBCSD)

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The business benefits of good staff training

When it comes to staff training, it’s a case of ‘help them grow or watch them go’. — Beverly Kaye and Julie Winkle Giulioni

Engagement_Cropped_29341504_xl.jpgGood workplace training of any kind delivers significant financial benefits2 . It:

  • improves employee performance: staff know what they’re supposed to do, how to do it and why to do it
  • saves time in terms of wasted labour by reducing rework, duplication of effort and time spent on problem-solving and correcting mistakes
  • saves money: a more highly skilled workforce means fewer equipment breakdowns, lower maintenance costs, lower staff turnover, lower recruitment costs, fewer bad debts, fewer customer support calls, fewer help desk calls, less need for supervision, reduced downtime, and increased worker productivity
  • increases staff productivity: a 2% productivity increase nets a 100% return on investment in training.3 One study2 found training by itself increased productivity by 22.4%, while training combined with coaching increased it by 88%
  • improves employee morale, job satisfaction and retention: managers fear that once employees are trained, they are more likely to leave the company for greener pastures – but the opposite is true: trained staff are happier and more likely to stay put. Their self-esteem improves, which improves their morale in the workplace and their loyalty to their employer. In one survey, respondents ranked “opportunities for personal growth” as the main reason they took their current job and stayed there (significantly, they ranked it ahead of salary)
  • improves customer satisfaction: better quality work means better quality products and services, resulting in happier customers
  • lifts company revenue and profits through increased sales, increased referrals, new product ideas and improved customer satisfaction and retention. An increase of $680 in training investment per employee generates, on average, a 6% improvement in total shareholder return, as well as higher profit margins, higher income per employee, and higher price-to-book ratios. Firms that invested $1,500 per employee in training compared with those that spend $125 gained an average of4:
    • 24% higher gross profit margins
    • 218% higher revenue per employee.

How does the ROI from training compare with the ROI from other initiatives? A study of more than 3,100 US workplaces that compared training with equipment upgrades found that5 :

  • a 10% increase in workforce education level led to an 8.6% gain in total productivity
  • a 10% increase in the value of equipment raised productivity by just 3.4%.

Find out more:

The American Association for Talent Development (ATD), formerly the ASTD (American Society for Training and Development), has a wealth of information and has produced some marvellous reports. There are similar organisations in other parts of the world, so look for one in your country. Search for “association (or society or institute) for training and development (or learning and development)”.

There are well-established methods for professional trainers to measure the ROI of training, and you will be able to access them through these organisations.

 

The eXtra X-factor of environment and sustainability training

“Sustainability yields bottom-line benefits from energy savings and resource-use efficiencies, but also adds huge functional advantages in all aspects of the business, not just those involving sustainability projects. — Michael Hopkins, MIT Sloan Management Review6

All good training delivers good ROI compared with that from other initiatives. But a growing number of studies show that the ROI from environment and sustainability training delivers an even higher ROI than other training does.

First, let’s look at just two examples of the ROI of environment and sustainability practices:

  • Introducing environment and sustainability practices in large companies can contribute to a profit increase of 38%7
  • other studies show that companies in the then Dow Jones Sustainability Index outperformed the general market8, and a report from Goldman Sachs9 found leaders in environmental, social and governance policies are also leading in stock performance by an average of 25%.

How does the ROI from the introduction of new environment and sustainability initiatives compare with the ROI from simply introducing environment and sustainability training for exiting operations?

The best example I know is where a civil construction contracting company made no other strategic or operational change apart from introducing environment and sustainability training – and saw a tripling of its previously stable turnover. The company had been prosecuted several times for environmental offences, and realised it would lose work unless it improved its environmental performance. It rolled out an environmental training program at all levels from director to digger driver, and tripled its turnover in four years.

The CEO attributed about 25% of the tripled turnover to the effects of the environmental training, but was at a loss to explain where the other 75% came from.

As Michael Hopkins explains, the biggest immediate profit payoff from acting on sustainability is increased labor productivity due to improved employee engagement and effectiveness10. Much of this can be explained by the fact that employees like to work for organisations with a commitment to social and ecological responsibility. Introducing environment and sustainability programs and training also forces companies “to learn a different way of working, yielding enormous gains in integration and communication across silos.”

It’s “X-factors” like these that contributed the “missing 75%” of the tripled turnover of the civil construction company.

A growing body of hard evidence indicates that environment and sustainability initatives, including training, provide one of the best available vehicles for increasing staff engagement and delivering the resulting suite of financial benefits to businesses whose commitment is genuine.

Find out more:

To find out what financial ROI your company could expect from environment and sustainability initatives, search for “cleaner production, waste minimisation, resource efficiency or lean manufacturing” in your sector.

To get help with implementing such initiatives, ask your local, regional, state or national/federal government what programs they run or recommend – these are becoming increasingly common. Many trades and professional associations as well as third party certification schemes are also starting to deliver environment and sustainability training. Besure to aks about these as well.

To help you measure the return on investment (ROI) of environmental training, check out “The Green Scorecard” in the references below.

Going green: does it kill or create jobs?

UNEP, the United Nations Environment Program, says employment will be affected in at least four ways as the economy is oriented more and more towards sustainability11:

  • in some cases, additional jobs will be created—as in the manufacturing of pollution-control devices added to existing production equipment
  • some employment will be substituted—as in shifting from fossil fuels to renewables, or from truck manufacturing to rail car manufacturing, or from landfilling and waste incineration to recycling [and waste avoidance/prevention]
  • certain jobs may be eliminated without direct replacement—as when packaging materials are discouraged or banned and their production is discontinued
  • many existing jobs (especially such as plumbers, electricians, metal workers, and construction workers) will simply be transformed and redefined, as day-to-day skill sets, work methods, and profiles are greened.

Stronger environmental regulation will be part of the transition. Many firms worry this will put them out of business. Not so, says macroeconomist Josh Bivens – quite the reverse.

The December 2011 US law approving environmental regulations to reduce emissions of mercury, arsenic and other toxic metals prevents up to 11,000 premature deaths each year and deliver many other health benefits, but pre-passage, a lot of people were concerned it would “kill jobs”.

When Bivens investigated the employment effects in detail, he found that12 far from killing jobs, the “toxics rule” could create over 100,000 jobs in the US by 2015 – in just four years.

His message is, “going green won’t kill jobs during hard times”: when the economy is doing well, environmental regulation has no effect on job growth (though it will convert existing jobs into much-needed green jobs); but when it isn’t, such regulation is very likely to create jobs, with wages and salaries that put money back into local and national economies.

20 years ago, Michael Porter noted that environmental problems can drive innovation in competitive companies. His observations are still true today: leading CEOs see environmental constraints and challenges as stimuli for innovation.

“How an industry responds to environmental problems may be a leading indicator in its overall competitiveness … Only those companies that innovate successfully will win. A truly competitive industry is more likely to take up a new standard as a challenge and respond to it with innovation. — Michael Porter & Claas van der Linde, Harvard Business Review 1995

Green jobs are already a big part of the global economy, and set to grow still more.

Storm Cunningham calls this the “restoration economy”. He says13 that restoration of built and natural environments already constitutes a major but overlooked part of global economic activity and will soon account for the vast majority of development. Economic growth based on renewing our natural, built and socio-economic assets:

  • restoring our natural environments – ecosystem , watersheds, fisheries and farms
  • restoring our built environments – brownfield , infrastructure, heritage, places affected by natural or human-induced misfortunes e.g. natural disasters and war.

What about the ROI on this restoration work? Does it justify the investment of public and private money?

When public money from taxpayers and ratepayers is invested into environmental restoration projects, the literature14 shows that 10.4 to 39.7 green jobs are created for every $US 1 million invested. Compare this with the oil and gas industry, which supports approximately 5.3 jobs per $US 1 million invested.

In a world where unemployment is a major concern for entire nations and whole generations, it is good news that green jobs can yield 2-8 times more jobs than conventional employment. Growing numbers of smart social enterprises are being set up to capture these employment opportunities.

Green jobs are so diverse that there’s no “one-size-fits-all” standard training package: the environmental skills needed for sustainable forestry are very different from those needed in a manufacturing plant or an office or retail environment. That’s why we see sustainability being embedded into existing jobs of all kinds.

Find out more:

My unique approach can help your organisation: you know your business and I bring business and training strategies to the table for you. Click here to find out more.

 

What does greening jobs mean for your sector and your organisation?

Next time someone says that tackling climate change costs too much, tell them it will add $US 2.6 trillion a year – 2.2%  – to  global economic output by 2030, by improved energy efficiency, waste management and public transport alone. — World Bank15

Every sector and every job will increasingly step up to restoring the ecosystems that support the economy and creates green jobs.

But what exactly are “green jobs”? Green jobs are decent jobs that16:

  • reduce use of energy and raw materials
  • limit greenhouse gas emissions
  • minimize waste and pollution
  • protect and restore ecosystems.

This definition means that green skills are needed by people working in EVERY sector.

So EVERY job is a green job.

And the people in the specialized green jobs in every sector will need TRAINING.

Five key sectors can play a leading role in delivering environmental training that will accelerate our transition to a better world:

  • government bodies
  • businesses, business associations and trade unions
  • first nations and environmental and other non-profit organizations
  • tertiary educators and vocational trainers
  • professional trainers and learning & development professionals.

Click here to find out more about what this all means for the sector you work in.

Short stories of success: a quote and 50-word case study for your sector here!

Below are quotes and case studies to support your work in greening the workforce in every sector:

Businesses, business associations and trade unions

In 2012, Accenture carried out the world’s then largest study of CEOs on sustainability17. The study surveyed some 766 CEOs from all around the world, spanning 25 industry sectors and more than 100 different countries. It found that:

  • 93% see sustainability to be of paramount importance to the future success of their business
  • 37% say they cannot keep up with demand for sustainable products
  • 56% expect greater demand for sustainable products in the future
  • 60% believe they can charge a premium for sustainable products.

Why do so many CEOS say this?

Because sustainability is good for business: productivity, profit, turnover and company book value all improve as a result of environmental initiatives. This will vary by sector – some sectors have the opportunity to do better than others, but they will all benefit.

Short case studies of training programs for businesses that delivered cost-effective environmental benefits include:

  • Construction: a civil construction company rolled out an environmental training program at all levels from director to digger driver, and tripled its turnover in four years – a result that can only be attributed to the effects of the environmental training
  • Manufacturing: an innovation-focused office furniture company got into lean manufacturing and found the staff needed literacy and numeracy training in English so they could monitor resource use and waste generation. Result: staff who were so grateful for this support were not only more efficient and productive, but became even more loyal and dedicated to the company, with record levels of staff retention and engagement – a known cost-saver to firms
  • Retail: a UK-based initiative for sustainable retail created a whole new profession – environment and sustainability experts in the retail sector, who have delivered improved customer experiences as well as significant cost-savings to retailers18, while productivity increases from sustainability initiatives in the retail sector reaching up to 26%19
  • Business association: a sector-specific business association developing an environmental training initiative for its members sent out a nation-wide survey of hazardous substances use. One respondent realised it was using a substance that was highly toxic and increasingly expensive. The company started using a non-toxic substitute that was just as effective – and saved itself half a million dollars a year – before the training even started!
  • Electronics: an electronics company identified a major cause of wastage of expensive and hazardous circuit paste. By changing their handling processes they reduced staff exposure to the material and for no additional cost, saved $56,000 a year – an instant payback.

Click here to download a case study – an oldie, but a goodie – of the massive savings businesses make by reducing their natural resource use and impact on utility infrastructure.

Find out more:

You can easily find examples like these on the Internet for whatever sector your business is in. If there is nothing relevant to your needs, ask your professional, business or industry association about what’s on offer. Sharing the costs of developing and delivering environment and sustainability training across the membership is a very cost-effective solution.

You may also be able to get support through business or government incentive schemes – energy efficiency, fleet management and waste minimisation are common examples of such schemes.

Government bodies – international, national, state, regional, local

Globally, green jobs could yield 15-60 million jobs by 203216, lifting tens of millions of workers out of poverty and unemployment while improving both social and environmental outcomes. — International Labour Organisation, 2012

Why would a government agency20 run environmental training and advertise that it has helped 540 organisations save a combined $85 million each year?

Because whenever a business reduces energy, water and waste bills, it’s not only increasing profit, it’s also helping to reduce its adverse environmental effects  – and this meets the government agency’s goals of sustainable environmental management. It’s a win for both parties – and for the communities who also benefit from better environmental outcomes.

Everyday workplace activities cause a host of problems that bedevil businesses and environmental managers alike, including:

  • air pollution that harms human health
  • water pollution by sediment and other contaminants from farms and cities
  • biodiversity loss and ecosystem impairment on land and water
  • soil contamination in urban and rural areas.

Such problems are causing worsening air and water quality, fisheries and recreational values, giving rise to many public complaints and growing community concerns about the environment and the very real public health and business costs of its deterioration.

Environmental training can create specialist jobs that can make a real difference to these worrying problems in a way that’s very cost-effective for government bodies. That’s why government bodies around the world are running or endorsing environmental training courses on anything from soil contamination through riparian planting to cleaner production and waste minimization.

The global trend of environmental bodies delivering or endorsing environmental training shows that prevention is better – and cheaper – than cure: it prevents environmental harm and reduces the need for expensive and time-consuming enforcement. Environmental training in partnership with business and other community stakeholders is a wise use of public money, and yields real bottom-line benefits to participating firms.

Government bodies can often make a good case for running environmental training programs because the skills needed are seldom covered in tertiary qualifications or by other training providers. This means that government staff, who often learn their very specialised skills on the job, often have the comprehensive knowledge and skills needed to train others.

Better still, for small firms without the specialised staff to develop and deliver environmental training in-house, government-run environmental training provides affordable and up-to-the-minute environmental training.

Government environmental training programs that continue to deliver cost-effective environmental benefits include:

  • government-sponsored erosion and sediment control training programs worldwide have all resulted in improved onsite performance, fewer legal actions, cost-efficiencies for development firms and council staff, and improved water quality
  • an e-training program run by a utility company to help its subcontractors prepare consistently good environmental management plans delivered excellent results first time round – a cost-saving investment that yielded better environmental results on the ground
  • training for staff of septic tank service companies so they could act as inspectors to help the council assess the need for upgraded community sewerage schemes
  • training for staff at a mobile hazardous waste facility accepting wastes from the public
  • adoption of a training approach to promote restoration of vegetation on rural stream banks, reducing sediment runoff to streams and harbours.

Click here to download a case study – an oldie, but a goodie – of how government bodies can support businesses to reduce their demand on natural resources and utility infrastructure.

Investing in green skills and jobs is key to solving the current economic and climate crises. — Graham Petersen, Greener Jobs Alliance Co-ordinator, UK.

First nations, environmental groups, social enterprises and nonprofits

Getting involved in environmental work has had economic benefits, but the most significant impact has been on increased knowledge and awareness of the environment … the result has been marketable skills for Siksika Nation members, increased economic activity in the community, revenue for the Nation, and particularly for young people, a whole new world of career possibility.— Siksika Nation Head Chief Strater Crowfoot and Maria Big Snake, manager of Siksika Environmental Ltd.

Some examples of first nations peoples, environmental groups, social enterprises and nonprofits that have trained local people to deliver environmental outcomes are:

  • community groups worldwide have set up many environmental programs: some New Zealand ones are local recycling, tree-planting and harbour-care programs, which have creating badly-needed local jobs while solving local environmental problems
  • Ngāi Tahu, the Māori people of the southern islands of Aotearoa New Zealand, won a major environmental award for adapting a generic riparian planting guideline to realise their vision for tribal lands recently returned under a Treaty settlement, and trained tribal representatives to transfer these skills to others
  • similar initiatives with North American Indian tribes are supported by the US Environmental Protection Agency – see the American Indian Environmental Office Tribal Portal here.

Tertiary lecturers and vocational trainers

Everywhere, the working population remains a largely untapped resource to achieve the transition to green economies and societies … a qualified and well-informed workforce is the key to ensure the industry’s responsible use of our planet’s resources. — UNESCO-UNEVOC, UNESCO’s specialized Centre for technical and vocational education and training (TVET)

The UN Environment Programme (UNEP)21 defines green jobs as “work in agricultural, manufacturing, research and development (R&D), administrative, and service activities that contribute substantially to preserving or restoring environmental quality. Specifically, but not exclusively, this includes jobs that help to protect ecosystems and biodiversity; reduce energy, materials, and water consumption through high- efficiency strategies; de-carbonize the economy; and minimize or altogether avoid generation of all forms of waste and pollution.”

A 2012 Green Skills Conference22 defined the skills needed by workers in those green jobs as:

“the skills for sustainable development, including the required technical skills, knowledge and values for industries and future workers in terms of social, economic and environmental development. Sustainable development skills relate to all facets of the society, not only including renewable energy, reuse and recycle of waste, utilization level of resources, green housing and sustainable planning, but also including wider areas, such as commerce, tourism, hospitality, information technology and finance” and more.

What short and long courses can your teaching institution set up to deliver the training these workers will need?

Our college and universities are uniquely placed to provide people with green skills training … With unemployment at a record high there is huge potential for growth in our low carbon industries which can generate thousands of new jobs and opportunities for young people. With other countries investing in their low carbon industries we cannot afford to be left behind. — University and College Union (UK) general secretary, Sally Hunt.

Professional trainers and HR and L&D professionals – your role in greening the workforce

The imperative of protecting the environment for present and future generations creates unprecedented learning and skills development needs for decision-makers, managers, and citizens around the world. — UNITAR, the United Nations Institute for Training and Research.

Professional trainers and HR and L&D professionals have a big role to play in sustainability by helping to train workers old and young to gain the green skills that every sector of the economy needs.

Environmental skills are increasingly among those in demand from trainees, and given increasing concern about matters environmental and economic, this trend is also likely to continue: “green learning” will consume a larger proportion of corporate social responsibility budgets, and trainers who are knowledgeable about environmental matters and sustainability are likely to be in greater demand23

But in most countries, the people delivering environmental training are subject matter experts; they are great at their job and many of them are naturally good trainers – but they are not professional trainers.

The ability of environment and sustainability training to maximise its benefits rests on the development of a vibrant partnership between the learning and development, environmental and business sectors.

The emerging focus on adult vocational training as a positive force for employment gains and environmental change brings together the knowledge-based and the restoration economies – and with productivity gains of up to 36% from environmental initiatives24 and the associated increases in turnover, profits and reputational value, businesses that don’t embrace environmental training will rapidly fall behind their competitors who do.

It’s time for environmental subject matter experts and learning and development professionals to join forces – together, we can change the world!

Find out more:

Follow the links below to find out more. PWC’s Future of Work report highlights the leading role the HR sector can play in the emergence of a more sustainable world.

  • http://ecoopportunity.net/2014/10/pwcs-future-of-work-report-where-does-sustainability-fit-in/#more-15765
  • http://www.pwc.com/gx/en/issues/talent/future-of-work/journey-to-2022.html
  • http://hrd.apec.org/index.php/21st_Century_Competencies

References and other helpful reading

Helpful reads

Harvard Business Review Press (2011) Developing a Business Case: define an opportunity, assess risks, create a plan, present your case. A book in the “Pocket Mentor” series – expert solutions to everyday challenges.

Jack J. Phillips, Ph.D. & Patricia Pulliam Phillips, Ph.D (2011) The Green Scorecard: Measuring the Return on Investment in Sustainability Initiatives. Nicholas Brealey Publishing. Find out more at and Jack and Patti Phillips’ seminal work on measurin gthe ROI of training at the ROI Institute, at http://www.roiinstitute.net/product/the-green-scorecard-measuring-the-return-on-investment-in-sustainability-initiatives/

Bob Willard (2002) The Sustainability Advantage: Seven Business Case Benefits of a Triple Bottom Line. New Society Publishers. Also author of ‘Next Wave’ and ‘The Sustainability Wave’. Bob is a certified B Corp and has spreadsheets and a wealth of other resources on his website to help sustainability champions. Grab them quick from http://sustainabilityadvantage.com/.

References cited

  1. World Business Council for Sustainable Development – see the WBCSD’s environmental program at http://www.wbcsd.org/vision2050.aspx.
  2. Dirkes, Dale (2014) Research consistently shows that training employees pays off with profits. An online article of 31 July 2014 downloadable from https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20140731043559-8175758-research-consistently-shows-that-training-employees-pays-off-with-profits.
  3. CompTIA and Prometric (2001) The 2001 Global Training and Certification Study. Cited in Bersin, Josh (2104) Spending on Corporate Training Soars: Employee Capabilities Now A Priority. Forbes Leadership. 5 February 2014.
  4. Bassie, Laurie J. et al (2000) Profiting From Learning: Do Firms’ Investments in Education and Training Pay Off? American Society for Training and Development (now the American Association for Talent Development (ATD).
  5. US National Center (No date) The Educational Quality of the Workforce (EQW). Cited in Bersin, above.
  6. Hopkins, Michael S. 2009a. 8 reasons sustainability will change management (that you never thought of). MITSloan Management Review, Fall 2009. Vol 51 No 1 p27-30. Downloadable as Reprint Number SMR328 from the Harvard Business Review website http://web.hbr.org/store/index.php.
  7. Willard, Bob (2002) The Sustainability Advantage. New Society Publishers.
  8. Hunter Lovins (2006) Smart businesses embrace sustainability. An online article from Sustainability Matters dated 21 August, 2006 and viewable at http://www.sustainabilitymatters.net.au/content/sustainability/article/smart-businesses-embrace-sustainability-1381710824. Find out more about the works of Amory Lovins and Hunter Lovins at http://www.rmi.org/.
  9. Goldman Sachs – Goldman Sachs Global Investment Research (2007) Overview: Introducing GS SUSTAIN. July 2, 2007.
  10. Hopkins, Michael S. (2009) 8 reasons sustainability will change management (that you never thought of). MITSloan Management Review, Fall 2009. Vol 51 No 1 p27-30. Downloadable as Reprint Number SMR328 from the Harvard Business Review website http://web.hbr.org/store/index.php.
  11. UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) (2008) Green Jobs: Towards decent work in a sustainable, low-carbon world. A report commissioned and funded by UNEP, as part of the joint UNEP, ILO, IOE, ITUC Green Jobs Initiative. Produced in September 2008 by the Worldwatch Institute, Washington, District Council, with technical assistance from Cornell University Global Labor Institute, New York; for the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
  12. Bivens, J. (2012) The ‘Toxics Rule’ and jobs – the job-creation potential of the EPA’s new rule on toxic power-plant emissions. Issue Brief #325 of the Economic Policy Institute, a non-partisan think tank in Washington DC, February 17 2012. Downloadable from http://bit.ly/126jvXv or http://www.epi.org/publication/ib325-epa-toxics-rule-job-creation/. Accessed March 2013.
  13. Storm Cunningham (2002) The restoration economy: the greatest new growth frontier. Berrett-Koehler Publishers Inc., San Francisco. See http://www.stormcunningham.com/.
  14. Todd K. BenDor, T. William Lester, Avery Livengood, Adam Davis and Logan Yonavjak (2013) Exploring and Understanding the Restoration Economy. Downloadable from https://curs.unc.edu/files/2014/01/RestorationEconomy.pdf. See also Yonavjak, Logan (2014). Now THIS Is What We Call Green Jobs: The Restoration Industry ‘Restores’ The Environment And The Economy. An article at http://www.forbes.com/sites/ashoka/2014/01/08/now-this-is-what-we-call-green-jobs-the-restoration-industry-restores-the-environment-and-the-economy/.
  15. World Bank (2014) Climate-smart development: adding up the benefits of actions that help build prosperity, end poverty and combat climate change. June 2014. Downloadable from http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2014/06/19703432/climate-smart-development-adding-up-benefits-actions-help-build-prosperity-end-poverty-combat-climate-change-vol-1-2-main-report.
  16. ILO/UNEP (2012) Working towards sustainable development: Opportunities for decent work and social inclusion in a green economy. A joint ILO/UNEP study published on 12 June 2012 by the Green Jobs Initiative. The Green Jobs Initiative is a partnership between the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the International Organization of Employers (IOE) and the International Trade Union Congress (ITUC).The Initiative was launched in order to promote opportunity, equity and just transitions, to mobilize governments, employers and workers to engage in dialogue on coherent policies and effective programs leading to a green economy with green jobs and decent work for all. The report is downloadable from http://bit.ly/ZbTIcy. Accessed March 2013.
  17. Accenture (2012) Long-Term Growth, Short-Term Differentiation and Profits from Sustainable Products and Services: a global survey of business executives. Downloadable from http://www.accenture.com/SiteCollectionDocuments/PDF/Accenture-Long-Term-Growth-Short-Term-Differentiation-and-Profits-from-Sustainable-Products-and-Services.pdf.
  18. Kenrick, V. (2011) New Sustainability Professionals within the Retail Industry. September 19, 2011. See http://bit.ly/YpO0Z9.
  19. Hopkins, Michael S. (2009) What executives don’t get about sustainability (and further notes on the profit motive). MITSloan Management Review, Fall 2009. Vol 51 No 1 p35–40. Downloadable as Reprint Number SMR329 from the Harvard Business Review website http://web.hbr.org/store/index.php.
  20. New South Wales Government Office of Environment and Heritage. See http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/business/sustainability.htm.
  21. UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) (2008) Green Jobs: Towards decent work in a sustainable, low-carbon world. A report commissioned and funded by UNEP, as part of the joint UNEP, ILO, IOE, ITUC Green Jobs Initiative. Produced in September 2008 by the Worldwatch Institute, Washington, District Council, with technical assistance from Cornell University Global Labor Institute, New York; for the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
  22. Find out more about the October 2012 China-Australia Green Skills Conference, themed “Green Skills – Powering a Better Future”, at http://en.ceaie.edu.cn/en_declare.php and http://en.ceaie.edu.cn/en_news_detail.php?id=5377. Accessed November 2012.
  23. Moloney, Dr B. (2012) Training techniques and skills needed in ‘new-age’ organisations. An article in the April 2012 issue of Training and Development, the magazine of the Australian Institute of Training and Development (AITD) and the New Zealand Association of Training and Development (NZATD).
  24. Bob Willard, 2002. The Sustainability Advantage: Seven Business Case Benefits of a Triple Bottom Line. New Society Publishers.  See more at Bob’s resource-rich website at http://sustainabilityadvantage.com/